Impedance as a method for determining ovulation in dogs has a long history of successful use. A proven method used for breeding foxes starting in the 1980’s, it was put to the test in the early 1990’s for use with dogs.

‘Electrical Resistance of Vaginal Secretion in the Bitch’

A.-R. GUnzel,’ P. Koivisto,’ and J.A. Fougner’1

Department of Andrology and Artificial Insemination

School of Veterinary Medicine, Hannover

3000 Hannover, West Germany

Published 1986

‘Changes in the Electrical Resistance of Vaginal Mucous in Bitches According to Concenrations of Estradiol 17B and Progesterone During Heat’

Riesenbeck A. and B. Hoffman

Ambulatorium and Veterinary Obstetrics Clinic,

Justus-Liebieg University Giessen, Germany

Published 1994

‘Influence of ovarian activity on vaginal electrical resistance in the bitch during proestrus and estrus’

A. Antonov¹, J. Dineva², P. Georgiev¹
¹Department of Obstetrics, Reproduction and Reproductive Disorders, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
²Department of Immunobiology of Reproduction, Institute of Biology and Immunology of Reproduction “Acad. K. Bratanov”, Tzarigradsko shose 73, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria

Published 2014

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